The Carroll County Governmental Complex is located on 605 Pine Street in Hillsville, Virginia. Carroll County utilizes the County Board Form of Government, adopted in 1971 and authorized by Section 15.2 of the Code of Virginia. Carroll County's Government System comprises of (six) 6 Board of Supervisors from (five) 5 Magistrial Districts within the county with one Supervisor-at-Large.

The County Administrator is appointed by the Board of Supervisors. All County Departments report directly to the Assistant County Administrator under the direction of the County Administrator with the exception of the Constitutional offices. Constitutional Officers are elected by the people in general elections.